SOCIALISMO Y COMUNISMO

Socialismo y Comunismo son dos corrientes sociales que han impactado a lo largo de la historia de la sociedad mundial. Son dos fases de la formaciòn econòmica social comunista: La primera fase corresponde al Socialismo, y la segunda es propia del Comunismo.

Carlos Marx-(Clàsico Alemàn)

EL SOCIALISMO. Es un sistema y doctrina social, econòmica y polìtica, que es base en el camino al Comunismo; se concentra en el concepto marxista de lucha de clases como el motor de cambio social, polìtico y econòmico; incluyendo los medios de producciòn. La economìa del Socialismo es planificada, busca priorizar la producciòn segùn las necesidades de la sociedad. Su gobierno es centralizado, existe una propiedad comùn de las herramientas de producciòn, no existe la propiedad privada. Asimismo, en el Socialismo no existe la propiedad personal (casa), y la propiedad pùblica (fàbricas y medios de producciòn), que pertenecen al Estado bajo el control de los trabajadores. En el Socialismo, el Estado es un ente regulador del sistema pùblico y econòmico, incluyendo los medios de producciòn. Todos deben tener acceso a los productos y servicios bàsicos. Las industrias son el resultado del esfuerzo colectivo; los beneficios deben ser para la comunidad en general. En cambio, en el Sistema Capitalista, son explotados con su lògica de lucro. Lo contrario, es una sociedad de trabajadores organizada a travès de una lògica humanista y solidaria, con orientaciòn a satisfacer sus necesidades humanas; una sociedad libre de pobreza y de las miserias espirituales que engendra el capitalismo; una sociedad que no se decreta desde arriba, sino que se constituye desde abajo, desempeñando el pueblo un papel protagònico, es decir, una sociedad socialista. El Socialismo se diferencia de la fase superior del Comunismo, por el grado de madurez en todos los aspectos de la vida social. Las fuerzas de producciòn no estàn bien desarrolladas, como para asegurar la abundancia de productos; el trabajo no se ha convertido todavìa en la primera necesidad en todos los miembros de la sociedad. El desarrollo del Socialismo conduce al Comunismo.

Mao Zedong – 1950

EL COMUNISMO. Es la fase superior al Socialismo. Es una doctrina polìtica, social y econòmica, que toma la lucha de clases como un problema para la igualdad social; la cual, se elimina con la desapariciòn de las clases sociales y de la propiedad privada. El Comunismo plantea un Estado dueño y gestor de todos los medios de producciòn, y una distribuciòn equitativa de la riqueza. Ejemplo China. En el Comunismo todos son iguales, las clases sociales no existen. El Gobierno debe ser propietario de todos los medios de producciòn, y los bienes del Estado deben ser repartidos al pueblo en forma equitativa. El Comunismo es una forma superior de organizaciòn de la sociedad que funciona sobre la base de fuerzas productivas altamente desarrolladas en la Ciencia, en la Tecnologìa, en la Cultura, y de la autogetiòn comunista. Es una sociedad altamente organizada de trabajadores libres y conscientes, en la cual se establece la autogestiòn social; el trabajo en beneficio de la sociedad, serà para todos la primera necesidad vital, necesidad hecha consciencia; y la capacidad de cada individuo se aplicarà con el mayor provecho para el pueblo.

REFERENCIAS: Diccionario Filosòfico: MM Rosental y P:F Iuden. Hermann Pûttmann, Otto Lûnning, Kari Grû

Mi especial saludo a todos los suscriptores y visitantes a este sitio Web. Asimismo, para solicitarles una pequeña donaciòn econòmica voluntaria, con la ùnica finalidad de mantener siempre activa esta PàginaWeb. Su donaciòn puede hacerla vìa PAYPAL que figura en este sitio. Gracias por su colaboraciòn.

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